Peer Responses:
Length: A minimum of 150 words per post, not including references
Citations need to be within 5 (Five)  years
Context: Nursing in the USA
See the attached  for the original assignment

T5 W5 D1 R1

According to Health Promotion: Throughout the Lifespan, “general systems theory provides a foundation for most methods community nurses use to assess, plan, and evaluate” (Edelman & Kudzma, 2018, p. 186). Broadly, systems are important to health because health resides within a body, which resides within a family, which resides within a community, which resides within a still larger and larger levels of a societal organization (Edelman & Kudzma, 2018, p. 190-192). Each of these parts are reliant upon the other parts in that if another part changes, all the other parts must change to meet the new demands of the existent part (Edelman & Kudzma, 2018, p. 157). When a nurse is forming a plan of care for a community, he/ she must use analyzed data from the community to identify appropriate nursing diagnoses (Edelman & Kudzma, 2018, p. 198). From the nursing diagnosis, the nurse can formulate a plan, implement changes, and evaluate whether the interventions achieved the desired goal (Edelman & Kudzma, 2018, p. 198-200). The nurse is central to this process because nurses are uniquely positioned to serve as a liaison between those who have the power to change policy and those who desire change in their communities (Edelman & Kudzma, 2018, p. 188).

When screening programs are designed, economics and ethics are intertwined. Resources are limited and someone must decide who will receive available resources. There are three ways this is generally decided: cost- benefit ratio, cost-effectiveness, or cost efficiency. Let us say we have a person who is at risk for a type of cancer that can be prevented by vaccination. By cost-benefit ratio, public policy might weight the cost of screening the person versus the cost of vaccination or available treatment medications should the person be diagnosed late stage. From the cost effectiveness perspective, there is a chosen outcome. In this case, let us say that prevention is the goal. A large marketing campaign geared toward vaccination and free or low-cost vaccinations may be the primary method used, with screening and treatment being utilized only when necessary. Using the cost-efficiency method, with prevention as the goal, mandatory vaccinations may be utilized for their efficacy at preventing the disease. However they decide to pursue it, community and national partnerships enact policies that either encourage or discourage screening programs.
The goals of health education, “to help individuals, families, and communities achieve, through their own actions and initiative, optimal states of health” is an admirable goal; however, there are many barriers to success (Edelman & Kudzma, 2018, p. 226). Some of these barriers include “inequities in the distribution of services and the benefits of public health”, limited financial resources, a lack of consensus of public health goals, inability to perform such necessary public health functions as assessment, policy development, and assurance of services, and decision-making that lacks essential data and knowledge (Institute of Medicine (US) Committee for the Study of the Future of Public Health., 1988). Obviously, there are major obstacles to overcome in the public health arena. Nurses who go into this specialty have a hard road ahead.

Edelman, C. L., & Kudzma, E. C. (2018). Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee for the Study of the Future of Public Health., I. O. (1988). The Future of Public Health. Retrieved from


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