During this week, please complete the mid-term. The mid-term is entitled: “Spreading Democracy”. Answer the following questions each in essay form:

Andersen et al describes in this week’s readings diverse governing styles in the Middle East.  Which of these styles best describe the governmental trajectory of your research country, or how else would you describe it, since World War II? Take into account: religious and ethnic representation, human rights records. Research US policy towards ‘your’ assigned country in any period after World War II up until today. Did US influence help to reform/change or reinforce ‘your’ country’s political structures, how, and during which period of time? Did the US enter into a war or military actions/support in ”your” country and what was the result?
Explain the rise of Political Islam in the 1980s and early 1990s. Compare the developments in the readings this week about Saudi Arabian, Egyptian and Palestinian religious/political movements.Include Afghanistan, even though it’s in Central Asia, not the Middle East, because of links to Saudi Arabia. Compare also to the religious identity of Judaism in Israel.
Do you agree with Max Boot? Using the international relations theory of realism, analyze the Iraqi Tilt policy (US’ support of Saddam Hussein against Iran), and the US’ policy supporting Islamic fundamentalist organizations in Central Asia. Were US policies in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s  until the withdrawal of US troops from Iraq in 2011,  justified and why, and what were the intended and unintended consequences?  Do you agree,and why,  with then Secretary of State Madeleine Albright’s statement that the cost of half a million Iraqi children’s lives as a result of the UN sanctions on Iraq, was ‘worth it’? (see my PPT “Oil and the Middle East”).. Take into account previous course materials:  my timelines, slide presentations, and  my interview with Clovis Maksoud. Take into account post-80s events such as:Saddam Hussein’s military build up and the Iraqi 1990 invasion of Kuwait, Gulf War 1 (1991) and UN sanctions from 1990-2003 on Iraq, and Gulf War II (the US occupation of Iraq 2003-11,  the rise of ISIS, until the present day.
Refer to: the Timeline Oil and the Middle East – WWII to 2003.

Requirements for the Mid-term: Four pages, spaced one and a half lines, minimum.  For Question 1:  Three quotations, bold and/or underlined, from Andersen et al  and appropriate readings this week, six quotations, bold and underlined, from your own research. For Question 2: one quotation each from all appropriate week’s readings and a minimum of three quotations from your research (all quotations bold and/or underlined)..For Question 3. As with the other questions, unlimited number of quotations from your own outside research, one quotation each from all previous class readings if relevant, bold or underlined.

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