Complete a two paragraph discussion post. Below is the link for the resource Keller’s Brand Equity Model: Building a Powerful Brand and below that is the full text of the source Toward a Theory of Customer Engagement Marketing.

In this discussion, you will assess ways of measuring or evaluating brand equity or customer engagement of a brand and identify key takeaways for a marketing consultant to know about managing a brand across its life cycle.
First, read the required resources, including the articles Toward a Theory of Customer Engagement Marketing and Keller’s Brand Equity Model: Building a Powerful Brand.
In your initial post, address the following:

Considering the customer-based brand equity (CBBE) model and other metrics, assess one to two ways of measuring or evaluating brand equity or customer engagement of a brand and explain why these evaluations are effective. For example, how can assessment tools be applied to demonstrate the success of a brand? Explain.
Considering the work you have done for this course and final project, think about the role of the marketing consultant in developing and maintaining the relevance of a brand. What are one to two key takeaways for a marketing consultant to know about managing a brand across its life cycle?

https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/keller-brand-equity-model.htm

J. of the Acad. Mark. Sci. (2017) 45:312–335 DOI 10.1007/s11747-016-0509-2
CONCEPTUAL/THEORETICAL PAPER
Toward a theory of customer engagement marketing Colleen M. Harmeling1 & Jordan W. Moffett2 & Mark J. Arnold3 & Brad D. Carlson3
Received: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published online: 15 December 2016 # Academy of Marketing Science 2016

Abstract Customer engagement marketing—defined as a firm’s deliberate effort to motivate, empower, and measure customer contributions to marketing functions—marks a shift in marketing research and business practice. After defining and differentiating engagement marketing, the authors present a typology of its two primary forms and offer tenets that link specific strategic elements to customer outcomes and thereby firm performance, theorizing that the effectiveness of engagement marketing arises from the establishment of psychological ownership and self-transforma- tion. The authors provide evidence in support of the derived tenets through case illustrations, as well as a quasi-experimental field test of the central tenet of engagement marketing.
Keywords Customer engagement . Marketing strategy . Task-based engagement . Experiential engagement . Quasi-experiment
Anne Roggeveen served as Area Editor for this article.
Whether intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, guided or un- guided by the firm, customers are now active contributors to a wide variety of marketing functions (e.g., customer acquisition and retention, product innovation, marketing communication, merchandising) (Malthouse et al. 2013; Nambisan 2002). They are pseudo-marketers, often with greater influence, lower costs, and more effective reach than their firm-based counterparts (Kozinets et al. 2010). This transfer of control to the customer can be a significant threat or potential opportunity for firms. This has led to an explosion of interest in Bcustomer engagement,^ which, in the past decade, has gone from a completely unused term (0 hits prior to 2007) to a topic that raises more than 6 million Google search hits. Consequently, firms are devoting substantial resources in an effort to steer customer engagement strategically; often hiring full-time man- agers (e.g., Director of Customer Engagement) (Verhoef et al. 2010). For example, Anheuser-Busch is expected to spend more than $200 billion annually on engagement marketing strategies, beginning in 2017 (Barris 2015). Yet confusion about the meaning of customer engagement is nearly as ubiq- uitous as its use, and research on customer engagement remains scarce and fragmented. The question thus remains, BHow can firms strategically guide customer engagement in ways that benefit their performance?^ Accordingly, the goal of this article is to present an emerging theory of customer engagement mar- keting and provide a foundation for the use of customer engage- ment to achieve marketing objectives.
As a first step, we explicitly delineate customer engagement, a customer outcome, as distinct from customer engagement marketing (henceforward, engagement marketing), which re- fers to a firm’s strategic efforts. Engagement marketing repre- sents the firm’s deliberate effort to motivate, empower, and measure a customer’s voluntary contribution to its marketing functions, beyond a core, economic transaction (i.e., customer engagement). It actively enlists customers to serve as pseudo-

*
1
2
3
Colleen M. Harmeling charmeling@business.fsu.edu
Jordan W. Moffett jmoffe5@lsu.edu
Mark J. Arnold arnoldm2@slu.edu
Brad D. Carlson bcarlso8@slu.edu
Florida State University, 821 Academic Way, Tallahassee, FL 32306-0111, USA
Louisiana State University, 2114D Business Education Complex, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Saint Louis University, 3674 Lindell Blvd, Saint Louis, MO 63108, USA
J. of the Acad. Mark. Sci. (2017) 45:312–335
313

marketers for the firm. Effective engagement marketing can reduce acquisition costs, promote customer-centric product in- novations, and enhance post-purchase service quality (Malthouse et al. 2013; Nambisan 2002). It can provide a means to monitor behaviors outside the core transaction, to capture a more holistic view of the customer and more accurate measures of customer value (Kumar 2013), as well as enhanc- ing customer satisfaction, loyalty, and, ultimately, firm perfor- mance (Ranjan and Read 2016; Rapp et al. 2013).
This research takes several steps to provide a foundation for engagement marketing. We review marketing literature and detail various explicit or implicit meanings of customer engagement, to distill the essence of this foundational con- struct as a customer’s voluntary contributions to a firm’s mar- keting functions. Implicit in this conceptualization of custom- er engagement is the idea that customers have something of value to add to the firm, beyond their financial patronage, so we present a defense of four customer-owned resources—net- work assets, persuasion capital, knowledge stores, and crea- tivity—that underlie engagement marketing. Then, building on the foundational understanding of customer engagement, we define engagement marketing. Next, we present a concep- tual model to position engagement marketing in a nomologi- cal network and identify two paths through which engagement marketing drives long-term customer engagement. We use this model to derive tenets for employing engagement marketing to achieve firm objectives, as well as advance research in the domain. Empirical tests of each tenet are beyond the scope of this article, but we provide some illustrative business cases and a quasi-experimental field test of the proposed founda- tions. Finally, we outline research directions that emerge from this newly proposed theory of engagement marketing.
With these efforts, our research makes several key contri- butions. First, we distill the essence of customer engagement to provide a foundation for examining engagement marketing. We identify its universal characteristics, differentiate it from other marketing strategies, and offer a descriptive typology of two types of engagement marketing (task-based and experien- tial). All engagement marketing shifts control over some as- pect of a firm’s marketing functions, from the firm to the customer, and depends on the firm’s ability to identify and leverage customer-owned resources (network assets, knowl- edge stores, persuasion capital, creativity). Task-based en- gagement initiatives go beyond the economic transaction and use structured, and often incentivized, tasks to guide cus- tomers’ voluntary contributions to marketing functions (e.g., write a review, refer a customer, provide support to other cus- tomers). Experiential engagement initiatives instead reflect the firm’s attempts to drive pleasurable experiences with cus- tomers outside the core transaction, such that these events motivate voluntary, autonomous customer contributions. Extant literature typically theorizes about each specialized form of engagement marketing separately (e.g., word-of-
mouth marketing, crowdsourcing, brandfests); we integrate these forms to provide a more parsimonious theoretical foun- dation for understanding engagement marketing.
Second, we develop a conceptual model and identify two tenets, with corresponding propositions, that capture the the- oretical essence of how engagement marketing affects partic- ipating customers. Engagement marketing has a twofold in- fluence on long-term customer engagement (beyond partici- pation in the initial initiative). First, engagement marketing can enhance the experience of the core offering, a key driver of customer engagement, by strengthening existing psycho- logical connections to the core offering (e.g., task-based) and by building new, diverse connections (e.g., experiential). Second, both task-based and experiential engagement initia- tives can drive long-term customer engagement by transforming the customer’s perception of the self in relation to the firm. Thus, engagement marketing can drive long-term customer engagement through transformation of the experi- ence of the core offering and customer self-transformation.
Third, we provide illustrative cases to support our pro- posed tenets, along with a preliminary empirical test of our conceptual model. Because the long-term success of an engagement marketing initiative is predicated on its ability to transform the customer from a passive receiver of the firm’s marketing offering to an active contributor to the firm’s marketing functions, a successful initiative should facilitate this self-transformation. We test this foundational prediction with a quasi-experimental field study in which we investigate the effects of an engagement initiative on customer engagement. It reveals that experiential engage- ment initiatives facilitate the transformation of the partici- pating customer’s perception of self, which in turn in- creases customer engagement.
Theoretical assessment of customer engagement marketing
A frenzy of rapid growth and creative energy has marked recent research on customer engagement (Bowden 2009; Kumar 2013; Van Doorn et al. 2010; Vivek et al. 2012), gen- erating a significant amount of knowledge but also consider- able variation in the definitions, concepts, and arguments used to examine the construct. This variation can become problem- atic. Without definitional precision, operationalization and dif- ferentiation from other marketing constructs is arduous or im- possible. Replicating findings is difficult and contradictory findings are inevitable making theory testing challenging and hindering the development of the domain. Thus, these foundational constructs must be Bnarrow enough to strip away unintended connotations and surplus meaning but … concep- tually broad enough to capture the underlying essence of the phenomenon^ (Suddaby 2010, p. 347–48). Therefore, in
314
J. of the Acad. Mark. Sci. (2017) 45:312–335

approaching a theory of engagement marketing, we begin with the recognition that, even despite some underlying sim- ilarities, many diverse viewpoints exist and must be reconciled.
A primary challenge related to diverse viewpoints on cus- tomer engagement is that the term is often used interchange- ably to refer to both firm strategies and customer responses, construed as Bactivities initiated by … the organization^ (Vivek et al. 2012, p. 127) and as Bcustomer behavioral man- ifestations toward the brand or firm, beyond purchase^ (Van Doorn et al. 2010, p. 253). In response to this conundrum, we begin by disentangling customer engagement, a desired cus- tomer outcome, from engagement marketing, which is a firm’s strategic efforts. With an inductive approach, we review influ- ential theoretical statements and recent empirical work to dis- till the unique essence of customer engagement: the desired outcome of engagement marketing. Figure 1 provides a visual summary of relationships among the key constructs; Table 1 details the implicit and explicit meanings of customer engage- ment in extant research.
What is customer engagement?
In an attempt to consolidate diverse viewpoints and build a strong foundation for conceptualizing engagement marketing, we first contemplate the merits of the unique perspectives on customer engagement. It has been construed as either behav- ioral or psychological (Hollebeek 2011; Jaakkola and Alexander 2014), though a general consensus indicates that it is a customer’s behavioral response to a firm, going beyond what is necessary for the core economic transaction (Van Doorn et al. 2010). Specifically, it is Bactivities engaged in by the consumer that are not directly related to search, alter- native evaluation, and decision making involving brand choice^ (Vivek et al. 2012, p. 128). Curiously, many re- searchers claiming a psychological perspective emphasize its interactive nature asserting that Bcustomers choose to invest … resources in particular brand interactions,^ thus, implying a behavioral component (Hollebeek et al. 2016, p. 3; see also Brodie et al. 2011). Defining it behaviorally rather than
Fig.1 Visualrepresentationof key constructs in customer engagement marketing
psychologically may be preferable; it does not preclude the relevance of psychological constructs (e.g., involvement, sat- isfaction, brand love, cognitive and affective commitment) but rather allows these constructs to fluctuate independently, with unique antecedents and consequences, and relate to customer engagement as either a key antecedent or outcome (Pansari and Kumar 2016). Defining customer engagement as behav- iors outside the core transaction also has the benefit of clearly distinguishing the concept from behavioral loyalty (i.e., repeat purchases) and other transaction-focused behaviors frequently studied in marketing (Dick and Basu 1994). Yet, construing it as any activity beyond purchase subsumes a wide variety of customer behaviors (e.g., product returns, product usage, product disposal, brand learning), potentially at the expense of retaining surplus meaning that could dilute the effective- ness of the term. Thus, we argue that a behavioral conceptu- alization of customer engagement better captures its implicit and explicit meaning and also that narrowing and clarifying this definition can help establish more effective Bbuilding blocks for strong theory^ (Suddaby 2010, p. 347).
The essence of customer engagement Taking an inductive approach, we turn to examples used previously to illustrate customer engagement. In particular, it has been construed as Bword of mouth, blogging, [or] providing customer ratings^ for a product or brand (Verhoef et al. 2010, p. 249). Other sources suggest it is Bcustomer contributions of resources such as knowledge, skills, and time, to facilitate the focal firm’s development of its offering^ (Jaakola and Alexander, p. 255, emphasis added) or Bcustomer recommendations and referrals … webpostings … and many other behaviors influencing the firm and its brands^ (Van Doorn et al. 2010, p. 253, emphasis added). It is relevant in contexts where Bcustomers can cocre- ate value, cocreate competitive strategy, collaborate in the firms innovation process, and become endogenous to the firm- ^ (Bijmolt et al. 2010, p. 341, emphasis added). Jaakkola and Alexander (2014, p. 248) thus suggest that customer engage- ment is Bbehaviors through which customers make voluntary resource contributions that have a brand or firm focus but go beyond what is fundamental to the transaction.^
+ ++

Customer–Owned Resources
Customer Engagement Marketing
Firm’s deliberate effort to motivate, empower, and measure a customer’s voluntary contribution to the ????irm’s marketing functions beyond the core, economic transaction
Customer Engagement
Customer’s voluntary resource contribution to a ????irm’s marketing function, going beyond ????inancial patronage
Customer network assets Customer persuasion capital Customer knowledge stores Customer creativity
Firm Performance

Revenue bene????its Cost savings
J. of the Acad. Mark. Sci. (2017) 45:312–335

Table 1 What is customer engagement? Implicit and explicit perspectives
315
• Customer acquisition, expansion, and retention
• Product innovation
• Customer acquisition, expansion, and retention
• Product innovation

• Customer acquisition,
expansion, and
retention • Marketing
communication

• Product innovation
• Customer acquisition, expansion, and retention
• Product innovation
• Customer acquisition, expansion, and retention
• Product innovation

• Customer acquisition,
expansion, and
retention • Marketing
communication

• Product innovation
• Customer acquisition, expansion, and retention
• Marketing communication
• Customer acquisition, expansion, and retention
• Product innovation

• Customer acquisition,
expansion, and retention

Sources
Kumar and Pansari (2016)
Hollebeek et al. (2016)
Jaakkola and Alexander (2014)
Verleye et al. (2013)
Vivek et al. (2012)
Brodie et al. (2011)
Hollebeek (2011)
Bijmolt et al. (2010)
Kumar et al. (2010)
Customer engagement
Bthe attitude, behavior, the level of connectedness (1) among customers, (2) between customers and employees, and (3) of customers and employees within a firm^ (p. 2)
BA customer’s motivationally driven,

volitional investment of focal operant resources (including cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and social knowledge and skills), and operand resources (e.g. equipment) into brand interactions in service systems (p. 6)^
Bbehavior through which customers make voluntary resource contributions that have

a brand or film focus but go beyond what is fundamental to transactions^ (p. 248)
Bvoluntary, discretionary customer behaviors with a firm focus… customers’ interactive, cocreative experiences with a firm^ (p. 69)
Bbeyond the purchase. .. events and activities engaged in by the consumer that are not directly related to search, alternative evaluation and decision making involving brand choice^ (p. 127)
Bpsychological state that occurs by virtue

of interactive, cocreative customer experiences with a focal agent/object (e.g., a brand) in focal service relationships^ (p. 9)
Bthe level of an individual customer’s motivational, brand-related and context-dependent state of mind characterized by specific levels of cognitive, emotional and behavioral activity in direct brand interactions^ (p. 790)
BCustomers can cocreative value, cocreate competitive strategy, collaborate in the firm’s innovation process, and become enogenous to the firm^ (p. 341)
BCustomers. .. contribute to firms

in many ways that are beyond direct transactions.^ (p. 297)
Typologies/examples
• Customer purchases (e.g., posting content on social media, inventing alternate uses for products)
• Customer referrals

• Customer influence (e.g. word of mouth) • Cusomer knowledge (e.g., feedback and
ideas for innnovations and improvements) • Customer resource integration

• Customer knowledge sharing (e.g., sharing
information or experience with others)

• Cusomer learning (e.g., customer socialization,
education, training, post-purchases learning)
• Augmenting behaviors (e.g., posting content

on social media, inventing, alternating alternate uses for products)
• Co-developing behaviorse (e.g., customer support, ideas for new or improved products, involvement in product development and innovstion)
• Influencing behaviors (e.g. word of mouth, blogging,recommendations, referrals, customer-to-customer interaction)
• Mobilizing behaviors (e.g., recruitment, boycotts) • Compliance (e.g., showing respect to employess, following organizational rules and procedures
• Cooperation (e.g., providing information and assistance to employees )
• Feedback (e.g., suggestions for product improvements, participation in new product development)
• Helping other customers (e.g., encouraging

other customers to show appropriate behaviors, helping others to have better service experiences)
• Positive word of mouth (e.g., recommendations, referrals)
• Feedback to marketers, consumers, and society

• Participation in activities (e.g., skill development
activities and events, creative events, online activities, product innovation and development events, workshops)
• Word of mouth • Cognitive

• Emotional

• Behavioral
• Cognitive activity (e.g., level of concentration and /or engrossment in the brand)
• Emotional activity (e.g., level of brand-related inspiration and/or pride)
• Behavioral activity (e.g., level of energy exerted in interacting with a focal brand)
• Co-creation (e.g., participation in the firm’s activities, suggestions for service improvements, participation in brand communities)
• Customer complaints (e.g., revenge activities) • Word of mouth

• Customer influencer beahvior (e.g.,
word of mouth)
Marketing functions

316

Table1 (continued)
J. of the Acad. Mark. Sci. (2017) 45:312–335

Sources
Van Doorn et al. (2010)
Verhoef et al. (2010)
Customer engagement
Bcustomer behavioral manifestations toward the brand or firm, beyond purchase^ (p. 253)
Ba behavioral manifestaion toward the brand or firm that goes beyond transactions^ (p. 247)
Typologies/examples
• Customer knowledge behavior (e.g., feedback and ideas for innovations and improvements)
• Customer referral behavior (e.g., referrals)

• Blogging, web posting

• Customer-to-customer interaction

• Feedback, suggestions for new products ideas • Organizing public actions against a firm
• Recommendations, referrals, word of mouth • Writing reviews
• Blogging

• Co creation with new product
development activity

• Providing customer ratings

• Customer-to-customer interactions
(i.e., word of mouth)
Marketing functions • Product innovation
• Customer acquisition, expansion, and retention
• Marketing communication
• Product innovation

• Customer acquisition,
expansion, and
retention • Marketing
communication

• Product innovation

If customer engagement is the customer’s voluntary, behavioral contributions to the firm, it begs the question: Contributions to what? Insight comes from extant operationalizations of the construct (Kumar 2013; Kumar et al. 2010; Kumar and Pansari 2016). Measures of cus- tomer engagement value capture Bthe profits associated with the purchases generated by a customer’s … influence on other acquired customers and prospects^ (Kumar 2013, p. 36), as well as Bthe profits generated by a customer’s feedback, suggestion or idea to the firm over a period of time^ (Kumar 2013, p. 39). Thus, they quantify behaviors in which customer engagement (e.g., word of mouth, re- ferrals, reviews, feedback) increases Bacquisition, reten- tion, and share of wallet^ (Kumar et al. 2010, p. 298). Underlying these descriptions and operationalizations is an implicit prioritization of behaviors in which the cus- tomer contributes to the firm’s marketing functions. For example, word of mouth (e.g., blogging, webposting) contributes to marketing communication effort, as well as to customer acquisition, expansion, and retention through customer-to-customer communication. Customer feedback contributes to product innovation (Cui and Wu 2016). On this basis, customer engagement becomes rel- evant to the firm.
We therefore define customer engagement as a customer’s voluntary resource contribution to a firm’s marketing func- tion, going beyond financial patronage. When customer en- gagement occurs organically, or naturally in response to prod- uct experiences or marketing communications with no delib- erate actions from the firm to motivate or empower the cus- tomer, it engenders more trust and is more memorable than firm-sponsored communication (de Matos and Rossi 2008). It is twice as effective as radio advertising, seven times more
effective than print advertising, and four times more effective than personal selling (Katz and Lazarsfeld 1995); thus, it af- fords many benefits to the firm.
Customer-owned resources in customer engagement
Essential to the proposed definition of customer engagement is the idea that customers have something desirable, other than their financial patronage, that they can contribute to the firm’s marketing functions (Hollebeek et al. 2016; Jaakkola and Alexander 2014). On the basis of our analysis of extant re- search, we propose that customers possess some combination of four separate, yet interrelated, valuable resources (i.e., customer-owned resources) that otherwise would be unattain- able to the firm: network assets, persuasion capital, knowl- edge stores, and creativity (Table 2). These customer-owned resources are Btangible and intangible assets [that] firms [can] use to conceive of and implement its strategies^ (Barney and Arikan 2001, p. 138) and can be drawn on to accomplish the firm’s goals (Kozlenkova et al. 2014). The resources make customer engagement relevant to firms; they underlie the very existence of engagement marketing.
First, customer network assets refer to the number, diversi- ty, and structure of a customer’s interpersonal ties within his or her social network. Customers participate in social networks that connect them to other existing and potential customers. Access to these networks can increase a firm’s reach beyond what is available through its own resources (e.g., purchased leads, current customers) and provide access to broad and diverse audiences that otherwise would not be easily reached by the firm (Brown and Reingen 1987), so leveraging these assets can provide a source of competitive advantage to firms.
Second, customer persuasion capital captures the degree of trust, goodwill, and influence a customer has with other
J. of the Acad. Mark. Sci. (2017) 45:312–335 Table 2 Typology of customer-owned resources
317

Types of customer-owned resources Customer network assets
Customer persuasion capital Customer knowledge stores
Customer creativity
Descriptions
The number, diversity, and structure of a customer’s interpersonal ties within his or her social network
The degree of trust, goodwill, and influence a customer has with other existing or potential customers
A customer’s accumulation of knowledge about the product, brand, firm, and other customers
BProduction, conceptualization, or development of novel, useful ideas, processes, or solutions to problems^ (Kozinets et al. 2008, p. 341)
Value to firm

• Increases reach of engagement marketing initiative

• Provides access to particularly influential individuals
or unique subgroups

• Increases the influence of the content shared over
other customers’ purchase decisions
• Improves the quality and relevance of the content shared throughcustomer engagement behaviors (e.g., blogging, writhing reviews)
• Aids in the development, management and dissemination of the brand narrative
• Improves customer-to-customer support and customer contributions to new product development
• Provides unique insights into marketing functions (e.g., new product development, product usages)

existing or potential customers. Extant research suggests that information from a customer who is similar or familiar engen- ders greater trust, appears more authentic, and seems more diagnostic to the receiving customer’s purchase decision than the same information received from marketing communica- tion or salespeople (Arndt 1967; Brown and Reingen 1987; Trusov et al. 2009). Importantly, a person can be part of a very large social network (high network assets) but exert very little influence over or even be distrusted within that network (low persuasion capital). Conversely, someone with high persua- sion capital who also has a large social network (e.g., opinion leaders, market maven) is a particularly appealing customer, from a customer-owned resource perspective (Feick and Price 1987; Ryu and Feick 2007). Thus, network assets can work synergistically with persuasion capital, but they are conceptu- ally distinct.
Third, customer knowledge stores represent a customer’s accumulation of knowledge about the product, brand, firm, and other customers. Customers’ firsthand experiences with the product and deep knowledge of their own needs often make them optimal sources of usage and product knowledge. Their knowledge thus can enhance the development of mar- keting communication (Feick and Price 1987), improve customer-to-customer support, and enrich new product devel- opment contributions (Nambisan 2002). Again, knowledge stores can work synergistically with other resources, but a person who is highly familiar with the product and its uses (high knowledge stores) does not necessarily have high per- suasion capital (e.g., the customer may be introverted, uncon- vincing in his or her arguments, or unwilling to share personal insights).
Fourth, customer creativity is a customer’s Bproduction, conceptualization, or development of novel, useful ideas, pro- cesses, or solutions to problems,^ which can be a source of
competitive advantage in areas such as creative marketing communication and product innovation (Kozinets et al. 2008, p. 341). Creative customer-generated content also can motivate idea generation and provide unique insights into meaningful product innovations, which help ensure new prod- uct success (Sethi et al. 2001). In summary, customers own four types of resources valuable to firms that are conceptually distinct, but exhibit many synergies.
What is customer engagement marketing?
Any definition of engagement marketing should accommo- date the diverse forms of customer engagement. Many re- searchers have described engagement marketing as Bold wine in a new bottle^ or nothing more than Bextended relationship marketing^ (Brodie et al. 2011, p. 254). Thus, it requires some distinction from other marketing strategies. We propose that customer engagement marketing is a firm’s deliberate effort to motivate, empower, and measure a customer’s voluntary con- tribution to the firm’s marketing functions beyond the core, economic transaction. Although customer engagement can occur organically, engagement marketing means that the firm attempts to guide this role for the customer in ways that are beneficial to the firm, such that it is deliberately initiated and actively managed (Schmitt et al. 2011). Extant research typi- cally studies each type of engagement marketing independent- ly, but integrating these findings reveals that engagement mar- keting has five distinct characteristics that distinguish it from traditional strategies such as promotion or relationship mar- keting, as summarized in Table 3.
First, the primary objective of engagement marketing is to encourage customers’ active participation in and contribution to the firm’s marketing functions. Word-of-mouth marketing, for example, motivates customers to participate in the
318

Table 3 Five key differences between engagement marketing and other marketing strategies
J. of the Acad. Mark. Sci. (2017) 45:312–335
Relationship marketing
BAll marketing activities directed

towards establishing, developing,

and maintaining successful relational exchanges^ (Morgan and Hunt 1994, p. 22)
Retain the focal customer and motivate future, repeat transaction with the customer
Customer lifetime value from past customer transactions
Bilateral communication between the customer and the firm
Understanding the idiosyncratic norms of the exchange relationship
Customer control is negotiated with

the firm, which affects outcomes relevant to the focal customer-firm relationship

Engagement marketing

A firm’s deliberate effort to motivate,
empower, and measure a customer’s voluntary contribution to the firm’s marketing functions beyond the core, economic transaction (i.e., customer engagement)

Objective of the marketing initiative

Encourage a customer’s active participation in and contribution to the firm’s marketing functions
Assesment of customer value

Customer-owned resources and potential future contributions to the firm’s marketing functions
Flow of information

Networked communication among the customer, other customers, and the firm
Firm-directed customer learning Training a customer how to contribute

to the firm’s marketing functions
Customer control over value creation

Customer exercises high control, which can affect outcomes relevant to the broader customer population

Promotion marketing
The use of a special offer to raise a customer’s interest and influence the purchase of the focal product versus competi

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