A 45-year-old construction worker complained of excruciating intermittent pain in the kidney area, radiating across the abdomen and into the genital area. He also had chills, fever, and nausea. He noticed increased frequency of urination and moderate hematuria. Pertinent 24-hour urinalysis findings indicated crystalline substances in the sediment identified as calcium in nature and a urinary calcium of 300 mg/day. This person was encouraged to increase his water intake to at least 1.0ñ1.5 L/day and slightly decrease his dietary calcium.

1- List 3 possible diagnosis, and put in in order from most likely to less likely.

2- How can we decrease the incidence of this condition?

3- Why does increasing water intake is expected to improve this patient condition?


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