Please answer the discussion question and respond to the same discussion question as if someone else wrote it.

Directions: Weekly Discussion Questions (DQs) are required. Below are the requirements for all DQs:

-DQ 1 is due every Wednesday of every course week and DQ 2 is due every Friday of every course week (Course weeks start every Monday)
-A minimum of 250 words 
-A minimum of two scholarly sources (including the course textbook)
-Apply APA stylistic conventions (In-text citations and reference list provided at the end of the DQ )
-Do not upload Word documents. Please write directly into the text box.
-Each DQ post is worth 5 points 
-Each required participation (responding to a classmate’s or instructor’s post) post is worth 5 points. You are encouraged to post more than one participation post, however, additional points are not rewarded for exceeding the requirement of one participation post.

Weekly Participation- Please respond to one of your classmates’ initial DQ or participation post or to the instructor’s post with at least one substantive response. Participation post should have a minimum of 100 words.

DQ posts are graded separately from participation posts. However, you will receive an aggregate grade for both the DQ and participation posts in the grade book. For example, if you complete your initial DQ post but do not complete the participation post, then you will receive 5 points instead of 10. All in all, you should have 4 posts each course week (2 for DQ one and 2 for DQ two).

Note: Substantive participation consist of qualitative and quantitative responses to your classmates and or the instructor in the main forum. Just stating “I agree” or any variation of that statement does not add quality to our learning experiences, this is not considered substantive participation. All participation post is required to have a minimum of 100 words, which consist of psychology or course content. Examples would be suggesting new ideas or ways to think about the topic, offering constructive critiques, asking for clarification while adding further information and sharing personal experiences within appropriate boundaries. Lastly, partial credit is not given for participation posts that do not meet ALL of the requirements listed above. 

Discussion Question 3.1- Elicited Behaviors and Classical Conditioning (Fear and Classical Conditioning)

Dunsmoor, J. E.  & Murphy, G. L. (2014). Stimulus typicality determines how broadly fear is generalized. Psychological Science, 25, 1816-1821.  (Article Attached to this DQ and also attached as a resource in week 3)


This article describes how fear that is conditioned to one object generalizes to other similar or less similar objects. In particular, it focuses on fears that are learned to objects that are typical of a category (sparrow being a typical bird) versus fears that are learned to objects that are atypical of a category (penguin being an atypical bird).

Discussion Questions:

Typicality asymmetry is a concept central to this paper about how humans make generalizations. After reading the description, give another example of typicality asymmetry that is not in the reading.What do the authors conclude about higher-order cognitive processes and generalization of conditioned fear?


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